The study has numerous advantages and you will limits

The mark structure reduced the potential for keep in mind and you will possibilities biases, and the higher level out of storage quicker bias because of good losings to check out-right up. Eating plan is actually analyzed multiple times throughout the go after-upwards, and therefore grabbed into consideration alterations in eating habits and you will faster aspect error; but not, particular mistake try unavoidable. Even if shots have been care about-claimed, studies physicians, without knowing new self-claimed exposure foundation position out of members, examined participants’ medical records to verify new coronary attack medical diagnosis and you can categorize the new coronary attack variety of. Yet not, due to the fact twenty four% of females that have stroke on NHS I and 32% in the NHS II don’t offer consent to examine the medical facts, we had been unable to identify all shots due to the fact ischemic or hemorrhagic; hence, new amounts of coronary arrest types was less. Still, the large quantity of players plus the enough time duration of realize-upwards offered sufficient capacity to choose clinically related differences in risks out of total coronary arrest and you will coronary attack models. Likewise, new current meta-analyses offered service in regards to our findings into losing weight intakes from magnesium, potassium, and calcium and you may likelihood of full coronary attack. A major restriction of the latest analysis is the shortcoming to independent the fresh new separate ramifications of the three nutrition with much certainty of the higher correlations between the two. And additionally, due to the fact investigation people mostly contains Caucasian girls ( 12), the outcomes of current analysis may possibly not be generalizable to help you people or ethnically varied communities.

To close out, results from this type of 2 higher prospective education provide strong proof so you’re able to assistance a keen inverse relationship ranging from combined consumption regarding magnesium, potassium, and you will calcium away from diet and heart attack chance. The fresh new independent role each and every nutrient from the reduced amount of stroke exposure is difficult to help you identify. On the other hand, the result of these minerals for the chance of heart attack independent off restaurants supplies is hard in order to determine. This research aids counsel of the Weightloss Methods to Stop Hypertension, Maximum Macronutrient Consumption Trial to prevent Heart problems, and you may Mediterranean diets, and this bring large losing weight intake of those minerals.

The newest authors’ requirements were the following-SNA: did analytical analyses and you may penned the latest manuscript; DS, WCW, and you can KMR: given important viewpoints of your own manuscript; and all of people: discover and approved the past manuscript. Not one of the writers reported a conflict of great interest linked to the study.


Supported by the newest NIH (features UM1CA176726, UM1CA186107, D43TW009106, HL34594, CA87969, and you may HL088521) plus the Bernard Lown Cardiovascular illnesses Program (so you can SNA).


Information was obtained on potential confounding factors, including medical history, other aspects of dietary intake, and lifestyle behaviors that could be associated with intake of these minerals and risk of stroke. These variables were updated biennially and included cigarette smoking (never, past, or current), physical activity (<3, 3 to <9, 9 to <18, 18 to <27, or ?27 metabolic equivalent tasks per week), menopausal status (premenopausal or postmenopausal), postmenopausal hormone therapy use (never, past, or current), parental history of early myocardial infarction (before age 60 y), multivitamin use (yes or no), thiazide use (yes or no), aspirin use at least 2 times/wk (yes or no), and history of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia (yes or no). Height and weight were self-reported at baseline, and weight was updated from follow-up questionnaire responses. BMI (in kg/m 2 ) was calculated as weight divided by height squared. BMI was divided into 3 categories (i.e., <25, 25 to <30, and ?30). Quintiles were calculated for total energy intake (kcal), and we used alcohol consumption categories of 0, 0 to <5, 5 to <10, 10 to <15, and ?15 g/d.

Age-standardized characteristics from 86,149 ladies in the fresh new NHS I for the 1994 and you can 94,715 feamales in brand new NHS II within the 1995 of the quintiles of magnesium, potassium, and you may calcium supplements consumption step one

Pooled RRs (95% CIs) regarding complete, ischemic, and you will hemorrhagic strokes from the quintiles regarding overall and you may weightloss potassium intake during the 86,149 ladies in the newest NHS We and you can 94,715 ladies in the brand new NHS II 1

Because of the seemingly large amount of correlation between this type of nutrients, i along with examined a blended magnesium, potassium, and you may calcium diet get ( Table 5). Having investigations of females on large having low quintiles regarding joint magnesium, potassium, and you can calcium supplements eating plan score, the brand new pooled multivariate RR for overall coronary attack is actually 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003). Conclusions were equivalent getting ischemic yet not hemorrhagic stroke.


The brand new relation anywhere between consumption away from magnesium, potassium, and you will calcium supplements and you may danger of coronary arrest shown in today’s studies is much like this new loved ones ranging from intake of these vitamins and you can risk of IHD. In the potential studies, diet consumption regarding magnesium and potassium had been inversely from the chance away from IHD ( 46, 47), however, there can be zero family which have calcium supplements intake and you can chance of IHD in females ( 48). Together with, intakes of magnesium and you may calcium supplements although not potassium have been on the straight down risk of CVD death in some ( twenty four, 46, 49) but not every ( 50) degree.